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This is a governmental organization responsible for managing and monitoring all aspects related to Cairo traffic, it should work with the normal citizens to keep the traffic organized, citizens as well should manage their behavior to help the government organize the traffic.
A clear plan is needed to face the traffic problem and organize the behavior of all people involved in the traffic issue, the plan should be a long term plan, not just a new plan whenever a new person gets responsible for a certain task for a certain period, it should be for like 10 years and everyone is to keep working on fulfilling this plan, during this period, no more plans to be introduced, we will stick to the original plan, only adjustment is allowed, based on what I have seen the last 13 years, I do not see any effective plan, maybe there is a plan, but it is not effective.

The government should be ready to organize all kinds of transportation, drivers attitude, roads and anything related to traffic, assigning resources in order to achieve the desired plan, I can see that the government is not able to organize the traffic or organize the attitude of the people involved.
The government should lead the plan and make sure this plan is applied, as a leader, they should follow the rules they define, which is not happening at all, a third entity is needed to monitor the behavior of the government, the government itself is not a leader, a lot of problems are caused because the government is not a role model.

A feedback is needed to measure the deviation of the current situation and the required objective, cameras should be everywhere to monitor the behavior of the citizens, government and all people involved in the traffic management process, surveys should be done to evaluate the progress based on the citizens feedback.

There are several levels of functioning people needed to manage the whole process:

  • Executives: Leaders who will be responsible to provide the necessary plan to overcome the traffic problem.
  • Seniors: People responsible for managing different places in Cairo, to make sure that the plan is applied at the same time at all locations.
  • Middle and frontline managers: Managers who will manage the involved workers to implement the plan.
  • Workers: People who will implement the requested tasks to achieve the desired goals.
  • Experienced workers are needed to facilitate the achievement of our goals and to train new people involved to solve the problem.
  • Products/Service: Products related to roads, pavements, bridges or any other items involved in the traffic process.
  • Marketing/Sales: Marketing and Sales are needed to influence the behavior of the people causing the traffic problem.
  • HR: Needed to make sure that the workers involved in the traffic process are satisfied and thus making sure that the working spirit is on its way to achieve our objective which is to eliminate the traffic jam.
  • Finance and Accounting: Providing a new solution will of course require cash and other resources, thus a financing team is needed to manage.
  • IT: Will be responsible to connect all entities involved in our process, will also monitor using cameras the traffic process 24/7.
  • R&D: Their role is to provide new methods to overcome our problem using a scientific applied research methods.

We will consider Cairo only as phase one, any industry related to traffic and transportation will be needed, we will consider the environmental effect based on the below classification:

External Environment

  • Political: Has no effect on our industry (as a traffic industry).
  • Economical: This will limit our resources needed to overcome the traffic problem, the resources must be used efficiently.
  • Social: People are one of the main causes of the traffic problem, they are causing the problem and at the same time they need the problem to be solved.
  • Technological: Technology will be involved to achieve our goals using modern methods depending on advances tools and instruments.

Internal Environment

  • Customers: These are the normal passengers and drivers, their attitude affect the traffic problem.
  • Suppliers: These are the people responsible to provide the necessary materials, tools and equipment needed to achieve the requested goals.
  • Employee: These are the workers involved in applying or monitoring our plan.

The whole plan must be applied over a period of time, determined based in our research and planning before starting implementing our plan.

Stakeholder Analysis

Talking to 3 different types of people involved daily in the traffic problem:

  1. A mini-bus driver:
    His excuse for not following the traffic rules were as listed below:
    – Doing as much cycles as possible per day.
    – Getting passengers on board before as drivers.
    – Using short cuts (driving in a wrong direction) to save time and gas.
  2. A delivery boy:
    His excuse for not following the traffic rules were as listed below:
    Deliver the orders hot and on time.
    – Using short cuts (driving in a wrong direction) to save time and gas.
  3. A normal car driver:
    His excuse for not following the traffic rules were as listed below:
    – He is not following the rules because simply no one is.
    – Moreover, following the rules might get him into problems with other reckless drivers.

Problem Definition

I believe that there is a traffic problem, people are not following the rules and their behavior is not helping to keep the traffic process organized, I don’t see any effective action from the government to solve the traffic problem.
I consider the citizens attitudes is the main factor causing this problem, also the disability of the government to influence this attitude.

Research Objective

The objective of the research is to find a way to control the driver’s behavior in order to solve Cairo traffic problem, the research is subjected to:

  • Defining the traffic problem.
  • Defining the effect of the driver’s behavior.
  • How to influence the driver’s behavior.
  • How to keep the drivers monitored and well controlled.

Theoretical Framework

There are a lot of factors affecting the driver’s behavior which I believe is the main reason for having this phenomena (traffic problem), we will consider four independent variables as shown in the diagram below:

Model Variables

Dependent Variable

  • Driver’s Behavior: Is the attitude controlling the driver’s actions under any situation while being on the driver’s wheel and driving any kind of vehicles.

Independent Variables

  • Psychological & Emotional state: How the driver feels and thinks while driving his vehicle.
  • Police-Driver relation: How each of the dealing parties (police and driver) feels towards each other.
  • Police Enforcement: The degree of controlling the drivers and forcing them to follow the rules in a respectful way.
  • Education, Morals & Experience: Anything that affects the driver’s behavior based on his internal concepts and background.

Research Assumptions

I have assumed that the gender of the driver will not matter for now and thus will not be considered.

Research Limitations

The research is to be done on the area of Cairo only.

Questions

Major Questions

  1. What should the government do in order to solve the traffic problem?
  2. How is the driver’s behavior affecting the traffic problem in Cairo?

Minor Questions

  1. What is the effect of the Psychological & Emotional state on the driver’s behavior?
  2. What is the effect of the Police-Driver relation on the driver’s behavior?
  3. What is the effect of the Police Enforcement on the driver’s behavior?
  4. What is the effect of the Education, Morals & Experience on the driver’s behavior?

Research Methodology

Paradigm: Quantitative.
Purpose: Exploratory, Descriptive.
Logic: Deductive.
Process: Quantitative.
Outcome: Applied.
Time horizon: Cross-Sectional.

Literature Review

The driver’s behavior is believed to be the main reason behind violating the traffic rules, as mentioned below in Summala’s abstract, talking about the effect of the behavior at every second while being on the wheel:
“The paper’s purpose is to search general mechanisms that would explain the drivers’ dynamic behavior, focusing on the question of primary interest in traffic psychology: What actually guides a driver in traffic? What are the basic mechanisms that, for example, determine drivers’ moment-to-moment speed control, in different environments, as restricted by speed limits or not – in other words, the paper searches for general psychological pacing factors in driver’s behavior. The paper proposes a framework for explaining and evaluating behavioral adaptation effects, a multiple comfort zone model, with the following variables to exemplify normal driving situations: safety margins; good or expected progress of trip; rule following; vehicle/road system; and, pleasure of driving. Other motives, and respective feelings, such as hurry, social pressure, self enhancement, competition, anger, and aggressiveness, thrill seeking, may also take control.” (Summala, 2005)

Another study describes the effect of the morals and beliefs on the driver’s behavior, his education and discipline will also affect his reactions:
Aggressive driving behaviors are extremely problematic everywhere. This exploratory research study was designed to investigate whether researchers could identify personality characteristics as well as attitudes and beliefs of people who drive aggressively. Survey responses from a “known group” of drivers with multiple traffic citations were compared to a student sample. Underlying differences in driving behaviors, type-A behavior pattern, and attitudes and beliefs were supported in a series of t-test analyses. There were no significant differences regarding agreeableness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism. Areas of future research including investigations of trait anger, driving anger, and gender differences are suggested. We also argue that there may be a key distinction between aggressive driving and road rage, paralleling the distinction between instrumental and direct/hostile aggression.” (Miles, 2003)

From the below study, it is clear that the relation between the driver and the monitoring officer is very critical and affects the behavior of the driver and thus his reactions will be affected based on this relation which is in most of the cases is considered to be a negative relation:
“The relation between the drivers and the officers enforcing traffic laws is considered to be a negative one, drivers assume tickets are issued just to cover a quota needed by the officers as a target and not to avoid accidents and arrange the traffic process.” (Yagil, 1998)

More studies have indicated that high availability of police members enforcing traffic rules causes less violations by drivers which means that by default the drivers tend to violate if no one is monitoring them, this is a natural behavior seen in several cities in different locations, even places of highly civilized people, the absence of enforcement will by the end lead to violations:
“Traditionally, traffic enforcement has been an important means of improving traffic safety. Many studies have provided evidence of connections between the level of police enforcement and both driving behavior and the number of traffic accidents. This situation has created a very rare research opportunity – it is now possible to directly study the influence of traffic enforcement on the attitudes and behavior of drivers by comparing two regions, one with traffic enforcement and one without it (Serbia vs. Northern Kosovo). The sample in the present study consisted of 424 drivers (204 from Serbia and 220 from Northern Kosovo). Questionnaires included items about the behaviors of the drivers (e.g., speeding, seat belt, drunk driving) and their attitudes. We also conducted field observations of driving behavior. The results indicated that the lack of enforcement affects almost every type of behavior that we examined. Compared with drivers in Serbia, drivers in Northern Kosovo drive faster, exceed speed limits more frequently, use seat belts less frequently, drive after exceeding the legal limit for alcohol more often, commit aggressive and ordinary violations more frequently and are generally involved in more risky situations.” (Jovanović, 2012)

Finally, it has been proved that almost all of the accidents are because of human errors, reckless driving and irresponsible drivers will normally lead to accidents:
It was found that 90% of the accidents happening are because of human errors, the driving style is affected by the driver’s age, education and experience, these items known as the demographic variables affects the driver’s attitude and the probability of violating the rules. (Najeeb)

Hypothetical Statements

Statement No.1 (based on the first and second references)

“The behavior of drivers is directly related to their psychological and emotional state.”

Statement No.2: (based on the third reference)

“The negative relation between the police officers responsible to manage the traffic process and the normal daily drivers is a key factor in affecting the drivers behavior.”

Statement No.3: (based on the fourth reference)

“Police enforcement is a key factor in influencing the drivers behavior, that is to say that areas without police enforcement will suffer a lot of deviations and drivers violations.”

Statement No.4: (based on the fifth reference)

“Education, morals and experience affect the drivers behavior.”

  • Jovanović, D. (2012). Influence of traffic enforcement on the attitudes and behavior of drivers. Elsevier.
  • Summala, H. (2005). Traffic Psychology Theories: Towards Understanding Driving Behaviour and Safety Factors.
  • Miles, D. E. (2003). Aggressive driving behaviors: are there psychological and attitudinal predictors? Elsevier .
  • Najeeb, M. (n.d.). A STUDY OF THE PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE RULE.
  • Yagil, D. (1998). I’m OK ‐ you’re not OK: Drivers’ attitudes toward police officers enforcing traffic laws. MCB UP Ltd.
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