Engy KHALIFAJanuary 27, 2019


All the economists nowadays are talking about the change that is occurring in the world concerning job positions and how by the year 2022 many jobs will disappear. 
According to the world economic forum there are some important business roles    will decline by the year 2022. These roles include data entry clerks, accountants, bookkeepers, payroll clerks, secretaries, customer service, and auditors. On the other hand, there will be a change in emerging jobs. By 2022 the emerging roles will be data analysts, artificial intelligence  agents, machine learning specialties. Big data specialties, organizational developments, sales and marketing. From these jobs we can see that most of the jobs are going to the area of data and information. Most of the world’s largest corporations are investing  in the sector of data and Information and they are changing their departments so that it depends on information basis.

By analyzing most of the jobs in the mentioned fields, we can see that  new jobs mainly depend on information and intelligence. Now the world is seeking to transform their specialism to a world of intelligence. Intelligence is now a part of each job. Technology has transformed to Artificial Intelligence, competition to competitive intelligence, marketing to marketing intelligence, and even finance to financial intelligence.
The question here is , why intelligence?
the way intelligence is used in the military; can be applied the same way in every field. Intelligence helps you to see what others cannot. It helps you to differentiate between different types of gathered and collected information. To know how to obtain strategic information.
The world is changing, and people must find new ways to adopt to the change that will occur.  people must accept change, know  how to self-develop, discover the needed skills for the coming years; as when the times comes, they show their full capabilities and be ready for it. Also, it will help them to defend against any possible attacks whether internal or external.
Everyone should draw a plan for themselves, where they want to be and what do they need to be in that place e.g. if you are working in the field of finance, you must know that the position of financial analyst is predicted to disappear after 10 years. You must change your way of thinking. Just studying the numbers are not enough. You must know that finance is not only about reviewing the numbers gathered from your different products, it has much more of an effect. You must know how your stakeholders are working, know their languages, their capabilities, plans, and how they can affect your business.
Market analysis will play a major role in the coming years, you must understand all the aspects that affects  your market internally and externally. Economic analysis is the solid ground that you can back your business with, you must study the past as it will reflect on your future. Analyzing valuation, corporate governance and compliance reports all become a part of the finance departments. Accordingly, all these new aspects and ways of doing your jobs can be applied to all the other departments, you must know what affects you and know every aspect of it. There will be no more one independent department; everything is interrelated. You must know that the world became a network years ago and, if you miss one aspect of it, you will not be able to survive the competition and eventually will fall down.
We still have time to prepare for what is coming, so, improve yourself, know which skills you need now and which you will need in the future. No one ever said that you were only born to do one job. You were born with some skills and you must acquire the other skills. Prepare and be persistent in fighting for what you want and where you want to be.

Rihab HAFIDHIJuly 17, 2018


The main spur to trade or rather to industry and ingenuity, Is the exorbitant appetite of men, which they will take pain to gratify.

John Cary, 1695

Capitalism is an economic and cultural system that is characterized by innovation, risk taking and private investment to increase wealth.

Let’s say it’s the 13th Century and you’re a fabric merchant. Just like merchants today, you sometimes need to borrow money or credit to buy the fabrics you want to resell at a profit, in order to pay them back with interest once you’ve resold the merchandise. This is called mercantile capitalism, which was a global phenomenon from the Chinese, to the Indian overseas trade network, to Muslim merchants who would sponsor trade convoys across the Arabian Desert. By the 17th century, British and Dutch merchants had expanded upon this idea to create joint stock companies in order to finance bigger trade missions and spread the risk of international trade. These were the beginnings. However, industrial capitalism is completely different, both in scale and in practice. According to Joyce Appleby’s definition, it is: “An economic system that relies on investment of capital in machines and technology that are used to increase production of marketable goods”.

Industrial capitalism developed first in Britain, which was the dominant power on the seas and was making wealth off its trades with its colonies, in the 19th century. The growth of capitalism was supported by the half-century of civil unrest resulting from the 17th century English civil war. The economic regulations imposed by the British crown before the war couldn’t be maintained during the turmoil, which led to freer markets. Another factor was the remarkable increase in agricultural productivity by the end of the 16th century. As food prices started to climb, it became profitable for farmers, both large and small, to invest in agricultural technologies that improve crop yields. The higher prices for grain resulted from population growth, which in turn was boosted by increased production of food crops. This increased productivity, eventually brought down prices, thus encouraging more innovation in order to increase yield. Lower food prices had an added benefit: since food cost less and wages remained the same, workers had more disposable income, which means more consumption. This incentivized people to make consumer goods more efficiently.

This rapidly increasing productivity also meant that fewer laborers had to work in agriculture to feed the population. To put this in perspective, 80% of the English population in 1520 worked the land. By 1800, only 36% of adult male workers were in agriculture and in 1850 that percentage dropped to 25.

One of the ways the British achieved this agricultural productivity was through the process of enclosure, through which landlords could reclaim and privatize fields that for centuries had been held in common by multiple tenant farmers.

Now capitalism is also a cultural system, and it is rooted in the need of private investors to make profit. Thus, people had to develop the capitalist values of taking risks and investing in innovation. The main reason why these values developed in Britain was that they were very well publicized. Writers like Thomas Mun, who worked for the English East India Company, exposed people to the idea that it was human nature for individuals to participate in markets as rational actors. Even the English language changed; the word “individual” wasn’t introduced until the 17th century and up until the 18th century a “career” referred only to the racing life of a horse.

Today we’re in the 21st century and it is evident that industrial capitalism has overcome. But it isn’t without its critics or shortcomings. One way that workers responded to these shortcomings was by forming labor unions. Another response was socialism. Capitalism advocates like to point out that it’s more inclined to human nature which means that if left to our own devices, humans would still construct capitalist economic relationships. Socialism in the other hand, at least in its modern versions, makes fewer pretenses towards being an expression of human nature; but rather the result of human choice and human planning.

We can confidently say that today industrial capitalism has won out, at least for now, and in terms of material well-being and access to goods and services, it is rather a good thing. But how and to what extent can we use socialist values to regulate free markets remains an open question. Is capitalist competition natural and good or should there be systems in place to regulate it for the sake of our collective well-being? Should we provide free health care for the sick and pensions for the old? Should governments run businesses and if so, which ones? Those are the challenges where industrial capitalism and socialism are still competing and in that sense the struggle continues.

Matthieu VITEAUJune 2, 2018


The 21st century is the world of complex and dynamic change. Investing in the age of disruption is obviously a challenge judging by how often the topic is addressed. John Mauldin and his network of analyst hold an annual conference (the Strategic Investor Conference) entirely dedicated to that issue.
I hold the view that short term asset management, the search for constant high yield and leveraged return on investment have had a destabilising factor for decades on the real economy. My conviction is that it is high time finance and the economy got reconnected, and I believe impact investing is one way to reconcile both.  To make it short, impact investment seeks to generate social and environmental impact as well as financial returns. This is taking place all over the world, and across all asset classes. What I especially appreciate about impact investing is the structuring effects of invesment on businesses, communities and nature.
When considering long term value and investment risk in a rapidly changing world, one needs to look at trends – societal trends – which pave the way to tomorrow’s economic landscape.

Macrotrends underpinning economic realities

  • Demographics: the world population will continue to grow, but with significant differences according to the regions considered[1]. Migratory flows toward cities have been growing and will likely continue to grow over the medium and long term. Migration is driven by economic, social, political, demographic and environmental factors[2]. These factors do not uniformly affect migratory flows, especially when they have an international outreach: some factors can be relatively less important compared to others. Migration has the potential to deeply destabilize societies – both sending and receiving societies – as those who leave do not contribute directly to local empowerment and to the development of the local capacities in their country of origin. They may however indirectly contribute to these endeavours by sending remittances back home [3]. The bottom line of demographics is that they shape economic and broader societal trends.



  • Sustainable development: a critical mass of humankind seems to have become conscious that it lives in a finite world with finite resources. If the legally-binding objectives of the 2015 COP21 agreement are abided by the 195 signatory parties, 4/5 of fossil fuels should remain in their reservoirs. There is a growing awareness – made manifest by societal demands and the advent of new businesses – that humankind’s footprint on the Earth should lean towards the minimal. This shift in perceptions is yet to be translated into behavioural changes: sustainable development is overwhelmingly seen through the technological lens. The blending of societal wishes, behavioural changes, regulatory frameworks and business practices is necessary to make sustainable development tangible.


  • Technology: the 3rd industrial revolution[4] is said not to have reached full maturation yet and still it has profoundly changed societies over the past two decades. That revolution is based on the use of the renewable energies which themselves rely on information society. Looming ahead are artificial “intelligence” and the Internet of Things and all the technologies stemming from these. There is a common element to all these high technologies: they all rely on finite raw components (rare earths) to function. There is a problem though: these rare earths are 1) limited in supply[5], 2) are not renewable[6], 3) restricted in availability[7].

Suggestions of assets for an impact investing portfolio

Investors who seek to create long term sustained value may wish to organize their portfolios according to the macrotrends described above. Here are some proposals for the tangible applications for investments.
1. Local business endeavours: the point about investing in local business endeavours is that they create sense to their local communities. Their resilience is likely to be higher than multinationals whose interests are not necessarily in line with the environments they extract value from. Local businesses – starting with small and medium businesses – form the backbone of an economy. The shorter the supply and value chain, the more resilient a company is – and together with it, the societal fabric it is anchored in. Local employment means a higher likelihood for migrations for economic reasons would decrease. Not only would individuals feel empowered but dynamics would be triggered that local value creation would occur.
2. Low technology businesses: for all the potential bestowed upon artificial “intelligence” and digital technology, they carry the risk of increasing the dependency of communities and businesses toward external suppliers whose interests may not be common to their customers’. For high technology to work (and these are indispensable for renewable energy technologies, smart cities, the digital economy, etc.), energy needs to be constantly supplied to machines. This entails efficient, resilient and redundant infrastructures that are usually fragile and quite sensitive to local climate conditions. Finally, high technology needs robust[8] computer software to ensure confidentiality, integrity and availability of the transmitted data. Low technology ought probably not to be discarded right away as it is often more suitable to some physical environments than high technology. Low technology businesses are likely to be less vulnerable to systemic risks, less energy intensive and require less specialised workforce to maintain[9].
3. Circular economy[10] businesses: this is where technology may meet behavioural change. Because so little raw material are reused globally, these businesses are likely to yield the most unexpected return on investment – including on the short term. As high technology increasingly needs finite materials, the shift of paradigm in production processes, consumption and reuse underpinning the circular economy may make these businesses pivotal for sustainable development.
4. Education businesses: people, however much qualified they are, need to constantly train and retrain to adapt to societal changes – these include the employability skills and job qualifications. As societies progress into the era of sustainable development, new business needs arise, new ways to conceptualizing challenges and complexity are needed. If societies and businesses are becoming more lateral than vertical in their organisations and processes, individuals need to shift their world views in order to find appropriate solutions to the quandaries they face. Education – both academic and vocational – will always be relevant as the need to adapt is continuous.
5. Artistic endeavours, tourism and empathy-based businesses: this last proposal for investors may appear somewhat outlandish as what they produce is very often very arduous to assess. Because they are mostly based on personal experience, attributing an objectively measurable accounting unit to the value they create. Yet, what is increasingly sought by consumers is experience to live rather than products to hoard. The more exotic and unique the experience, the more sought after and valuable it is. The said experience need not be costly to be unique and highly sought after. By the same token, people spending most of their waking hours in front of a screen – either a computer or a smart phone – feel the increasing need to “disconnect” and “reconnect” to real life, emotions, whatever triggers an empathic stimulations that dematerialized processes and relationships cannot bring.
[1] See the United Nations population division’s website on the world’s population prospects 2017. As a very rough illustration of these differences in population growth, see the two graphs for the “more developed regions” and the “less developed regions”.
[2] For an overview of these factors, see “Migration and Global Environmental Change”, final report, the Government Office for Science, published by the United Nations, pp. 44-45.
[3] See “Migration and Remittances”, World Bank group, 2016
[4] See “the third industrial revolution”, Jeremy Rifkin, Palgrave Macmillan, 2011
[5] For instance, the ground holds 1,200 times fewer neodyme and 2,650 times fewer gallium than iron ore.
[6] Almost none of these rare earths see any recycling as the quantities used in batteries, smart phones, computers, turbines, magnets, etc. are so little that processes to reuse these materials are not considered cost-efficient.
[7] Less than 10 states hold the total known supply of rare earths on the planet. Of these 10, China holds the lion’s share. For a map of rare earths deposit locations, see: https://ec.europa.eu/growth/sites/growth/files/global_suppliers_of_crms.jpg
[8] Robust here means: resistant to cyberattacks, adaptable to systems upgrade and protective of privacy.
[9] As an illustration, Europe is undergoing a dramatic shortage of information technology qualified labour.
[10] For a brief overview of the circular economy, see Ellen Mac Arthur Foundation: https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/circular-economy/overview/concept



Love has always been an inexhaustible source of passion, happiness, inspiration, pleasure and above all money. It is closely related to the emotions of man and affects all common mortals and when it arrives the control is out. we act without real control, and that makes the happiness of the economy because when we love we do not count. The turnover related to love is significant. Some have understood and know how to benefit. Hence, they create a holiday to satisfy the lovers on the one hand and the economy on the other.
In addition, with a simple inspiration, some could build a real wealth. This is the case of the British author (EL JAMES) of the trilogy “fifty shade of Grey”. Indeed, thanks to this novel, this lady is one of the fortunes of this world. Love can be an industry because it is also a provider of funds.
In this article, we will discuss the economics of Valentine’s Day and EL JAMES trilogy “Fifty Shade of Gray”, which have two points in common: love and money.
Valentine’s Day:
The holidays have always been a moment of joy. A way for everyone to forget for only a few hours the problems of every day. But also, a moment of inattention, and spending because even holidays have budget so an economic aspect. Indeed, holiday has a real economic potential because it can generate millions of euros. Thus, traditional or religious holidays have an undeniable part on the economy.
As if that were not enough, holiday was invented from scratch to generate money to help the economy take a breath of fresh air. Valentine’s Day is one of them, a real boon for certain sectors to realize or supplement their turnover.
Thus, when the pleasure is mixed with the economy it is “all good” because one spends without counting even if it is punctual. Valentine’s Day is a holiday created, invented to earn money and satisfy lovers in perpetual quest for a means of expression of their love. We are or have been all in love at some point in our lives. This holiday reminds us that we must please our sweet half by offering them gifts on this special day.
Behind, these paintings so romantic there is a whole planning, organization so that this holiday can be generating income.
The aim of economic intelligence is to create the absolute need for consumers to own a product or participate in an economic activity. Indeed, for a product or an economic activity to be credible, it is necessary to give them an appearance at once casual, natural, especially essential. Reason why, the true identity of Valentine’s Day will never be unanimous.
This holiday has various origins or unknown elsewhere, there is such a groping on its real origin that I prefer to limit myself to quote you only one that seems consistent. Indeed, some say that:
The real origin of this holiday is attested in the fourteenth century in Great Britain still Catholic where the day of Valentine’s Day February 14 was like a lovers ‘holiday because it was thought that the birds chose this day to mate.
As a real business, Valentine’s Day is a commercial celebration and developed in the United States in the middle of the nineteenth century, with the sale of cards reminiscent of small notes that were exchanged Valentin and Valentine.
According to a publication published in 2016, it seems that the American economy is crazy about Valentine’s Day. They spent in 2016, the 19.7 billion dollars (18.5 billion euros). In 2017, it is estimated that spending for February 14th was slightly down: $ 18.2 billion – “including $ 4 billion in jewelry and $ 2 billion in flowers.” On average, each person should spend about 136 dollars (127 euros).
In France 
This represented “an overall expenditure of 24.8 million euros”, i.e. 6% of the quantities purchased and 14% of the amount spent on plants in February 2016.
This year the feast of Valentine’s Day has brought nearly 20 billion dollars to the United States, several hundred million euros in France.
Valentine’s Day: a juicy business and the American stars have understood and benefit. Products derived from the labels of certain stars have been launched.
In France the perfumeries have made for the single day a total turnover of 80.7 million euros, 19 million for roses and finally for chocolates 5 billion euros mainly in Asia. Thus, the amount of money raised tends to 20billion $ 248 million can constitute the annual turnover of some multinationals.
Indeed, thanks to this festival the month of February has become the month of love and lovers. Thus, the film adaptation of the famous trilogy “Fifty Shades of Gray” is broadcast a few days before February 14.
The trilogies fifty shade of Grey
This year, 2018 Valentine’s Day was crowned by the release of the final film of the trilogy Fifties Shades undoubtedly from the famous book “50 shades of grey” which is divided into three volumes: Fifty shades of Grey (2011) – Fifty shades darker (2011) – Fifty shades lighter (2012)
Known as “mummy porn”, literally “porn for moms”, erotic literature is also a cardboard box before Valentine’s Day.
The story of this trilogy is worthy of a fairy tale for romantics and also for its author who thanks to its inspiration is one of the greatest fortunes of this world estimated at 52 million euros of personal wealth. This fortune does not take into account the gains from the cinematographic adaptation of his novel. The feature film reported in 2015 more than 507 million euros.
The story of the trilogy, author: EL JAMES
Written in English and translated into several languages, this trilogy will remain long in the memory of passionate people and also in the record of the best-selling novels in the world. A story all at once romantic, erotic with a touch of sadomasochism. What has revealed to readers their penchant for sex sometimes devoid of modesty that is not apparent in the behavior of every day.
The hooting towards this book shows us that the world is love, passion, money and sex.
We all have a piggy side in sexuality. To satisfy this so expressive need we must give ourselves the means, hence our real motivation to fight to make a living. Because, the instinct of survival is not only food.
The original trilogy has been sold to more than 125 million copies worldwide. In France, it has sold a total of more than 7.2 million copies, all editions combined.
The movie adaptation of the first volume, released in France in February 2015, brought in $ 570 million worldwide.
This book has made it possible to trivialize, uninhibited and popularize the “pornographic and sadomasochistic sex” character.
The economy by its etymological sense is devoid of any feeling, but uses emotions very often to achieve its ends (earn money). It is in the most unexpected areas, and rush into any breach to satisfy his thirst. Emotion remains undeniably one of the locomotives of the economy.